The formation of a wireless “military internet” network has been completed in the Arctic
First of all, the “military Internet” connected Arctic Trefoil autonomous bases, located on the islands and the continental coast of the Arctic Ocean, to each other, as well as to the mainland. Meanwhile, the transmission of information and its volume are now independent of geographic latitude or weather conditions. Experts note that the introduction of the new communication system will help to establish combat control over remote military units.
The network enables exchanging data at a high speed at a distance of hundreds and thousands of kilometers, source in the Ministry of Defense told Izvestia. Transmission of the information in the Arctic is carried out with the help of satellite and radio relay communication. Now each of these channels is able to maintain high quality communication, including video broadcasting. The "Military Internet" is physically separated from the World Wide Web to prevent unauthorized entry from outside. In the army it is called defense ministry’s confidential network.
Today, Russian troops are controlled by automated control systems (ACS), which need stable and protected communication channels, said Viktor Murakhovsky, Editor-in-chief of Arsenal of the Fatherland magazine.
“A unified lighting system for surface, underwater and air conditions is being created in the Arctic now. All the Trefoils are located on the important northern strategic direction and, as they have radio and military intelligence capabilities, information from them should be transmitted to higher structures in real time. The new network and ACS will link the bases and other facilities to the National Defence Management Centre”, told the expert.
In peacetime, remote garrisons will be able to conduct business more easily with the help of ACS. In particular, there are programs that take stocks into account and even help to order everything from the central warehouses.
In order to solve the problem of Internet communication in the northern latitudes, the military forces in recent years have strengthened the space constellation of Russian satellites, which are designed to serve the territory of the Far North. Now the number of devices makes it possible to ensure high quality data transmission in the Arctic.
The second main communication channel is radio relay communication based on multiple relaying of signals. For this purpose, a line of towers like cellular is being built, which transmit a directional signal from one to the other along a chain. Such networks are often used by oil and gas companies.
Such scheme has made it possible to provide tight communication not only to military bases, but also to large territories. Now ships and vessels, as well as ice reconnaissance aircrafts located in remote Arctic regions won’t be left without it. Duplication of channels in extremely severe weather conditions is an definite plus.
“Creating such a network with associated infrastructure in the Arctic is extremely difficult”, said Denis Kuskov, CEO of the analytical company Telecom Daily.
“The developers had to solve a number of difficult technical problems. For example, all ground transceivers and relay equipment is higher in class than the civil. It has to function smoothly at extremely low temperatures, not to react to their fluctuations and withstand a serious wind load. We have also solved the problems related to testing and monitoring the operation of networks, so we guarantee their reliability”, he told.
Currently, several large fully autonomous military bases are deployed in the Arctic, so they are in the greatest need of reliable communications. The most famous of them is the Arctic Trefoil, which is located on the island of Alexandra's Land of the Franz Joseph Land archipelago. Its main task is to provide air defense of the country. The base has a closed life support cycle: all the important buildings and structures are interconnected by crossings, which allows the personnel not to go out without a special need.
The Northern Clover base is deployed on the Kotelny Island of the Novosibirsk Archipelago. Next to it a strategically important Temp military airfield is located. A small town Polar Star was built on Wrangel Island. A similar base was recently opened on Cape Otto Schmidt in Chukotka.
Radar stations, aviation guidance points and airfields protecting the Northern Sea Route and Russian borders with the North are a must at such sites. Arctic garrisons are powerful outposts covering all important industrial areas of the country: Central, Ural and Siberian.
Through the Arctic
In the near future, the Ministry of Defense should build a fiber-optic transarctic communication line. The structural scheme of the submarine system has already been developed and preparations for its laying have begun. First of all, it is being created for the needs of the Navy, Air Force and Coastal Forces of the Northern and Pacific Fleets.
Earlier Izvestia was told that the fiber-optic line would literally “flash through” the Arctic and the Far East. It will start in Severomorsk, pass through Anadyr, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky to Vladivostok. The 12.7 thousand km long line is divided into two parts - Arctic and Far East. The length of the first part will be about 5.7 thousand km, the second part will be 7 thousand km.
Several types of sections will be equipped during the construction of the line: unrepeating, with underwater repeaters and laser pumping to enhance the light flow. The selection of the technology will depend on the terrain and hydrogeological situation. Durability at extremely low temperatures is a must for the equipment and fibre optics.
As a result, the line will connect all the military and naval bases in remote areas and will create a modern extensive telecommunications network on the coast and islands of the Arctic and Pacific Oceans.